Monday, May 22, 2017

Congolese culture: Politically or tribally motivated?

Politically or tribally motivated?

And this question: “Was the carpet crossing of the Mosendjo MP, politically motivated or tribal? He did not give me a straight forward answer. He said: “in Africa, people voted then and even now, based more on tribal and regional affiliations than the substance or political programme of candidates or political parties and Congo, is not different”.  He continued: “Fulbert Youlou, a southern politician won because of what I have mentioned earlier and also because the south was and is still more populated than the north”. He concluded this way: “Jacques Opangault was a veteran politician from the north who could not understand why he always lost to political leaders of the south, especially to Felix Tchikaya and then to Rev Father Fulbert Youlou. He was so aggrieved, to a point that, he wanted northern Congo to be attached to present day Central African Republic, but it was President Charles De Gaulle who discouraged him”.

How the greater southern Congolese Caucasus was formed

The southern Congolese diplomat narrated to me another story, which might also explain why in the Republic of Congo, as you have already read, there are no cardinal points. A Congolese is either from the north and speaks Lingala or from the south and speaks Kikongo. Lingala and Kikongo are what I referred to earlier as the supra-tribes. He said: “when Jacques Opangault lost in 1959, he mobilized northerners in Pointe Noire and also in Brazzaville, in particular around the Mpila neighbourhood against the victory of Youlou”. At the Mpila neighbourhood, he added: “a pregnant woman from the south, first believed to be an ethnic Lari, was killed in an atrocious manner”.  He gave me the graphic description: “Her stomach was split open and her lifeless baby taken out”.  He continued: “It was claimed that, the assassins were northerners, instigated by Jacques Opangault”. And according to the same diplomat: “the killing of the pregnant woman, sparked a polarized civil war, pitting the northerners, generally known as the Bagalas or people who speak Lingala, against the BaCongo or people who speak the Kikongo language”.

How Lingala and Kikongo became the supra-tribes


It should be pointed out that, in the south as well as in the north, there are many other languages or dialects spoken by the various tribes. Some like the Tekes are found and spoken in 8 of the 12 regions of the country, albeit with some nuances.  However, Lingala or Kikongo dominates because they were encouraged by colonial masters, especially by missionaries. Regional identification influenced by religion first and secondly by politics cemented the division and also solidified the domination of Lingala and Kikongo. And still according to the Congolese diplomat based in DC: “it was later on discovered that, the assassinated woman was not a BaCongo or a Lari to be precise, but an ethnic Bembe from the Niari region. This sad news, widen the enemies of northerners beyond the BasCongo”.  Therefore, the above was how an unfortunate situation united the divides people of greater southern Congo. 

Wednesday, May 10, 2017

Congolese Cultural values

In the chapter on: “People that I have met”, you have read that, there were very few women occupying top positions in all walks of life in Congo. And throughout my stay, I did try to find out the reason why, while equally comparing Congolese women, in particular the young, with those of neighbouring Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The age bracket of Congolese girls/women that attracted my attention was between 18 and 35 and my conclusion, which will be developed below is grim. This chapter also focuses on Congolese men who are governing the country and their “special thirst”, which has given birth to a “unique culture” that has destroyed the country: socially, politically and economically. How has the current political and business elite almost all belonging to the ruling PCT, ruined Congo? An attempt to respond to the latter question will be given below.

The ideologue of destruction
   
According to one Congolese diplomat that I met in Washington DC: “Marien Ngouabi is the ideologue of the destruction of the Congolese state, no matter how venerated he has become today, in particular, since his assassination in 1977, he is responsible for the demise of the system: Socially, Politically and economically”.  How? He went on: “Marien Ngouabi was the man who masterminded the 1967 and 1968 coup d’états that overthrew Alphonse Massamba-Debat. Everything changed negatively from the Marien Ngouabi ethnic or tribal oriented coup d’état. That coup d’état was repackaged as an ideological rectification, but in reality, it was a tribal based coup, engineered by northern officers who felt among other grievances that, they were being down-looked by the well educated southerners”. He added: “The other unacknowledged truth behind the Marien Ngouabi coup d’état was that, it was also a political hangover from a pre-independence dispute: pitting a southern elite and politician, Reverend Father Fulbert Youlou against a northern elite and politician, Jacques Opangault”. He concluded: “Northern elite have never accepted the fact that, the first president of Congo came from the south. They think that, they were short changed by Fulbert Youlou. Hence, Congo began its independence, with a tribal war, which has divided the country since 1959”. 

Causes of the first civil war

Still according to the same former Congolese diplomat who now resides in Washington DC as a political refugee: “if Congo is not only destroyed socially, politically and economically as it currently is, but also  polarized along two supra-tribes: Lingala and Kikongo it is because of Marien Ngouabi.” He insisted: “the cause of the civil war of 1959 was because Jacques Opangault, who was the prime minister at that time with a small majority, could not accept the lost of his post to Fulbert Youlou”. He went on: “Jacques Opangault, lost because an MP from Mosendjo carpet crossed to opposition leader, Fulbert Youlou. This simple move made Fulbert Youlou to become Congo’s first president at independence from France in 1960”. 

Wednesday, June 29, 2016

Profile of Bridget Akoli Nguesso:the wife of the ruling family

On the 10th of April 2014, at about 9pm, I received a phone call from Bridget Nguesso, the wife of Maurice Nguesso. She asked me to come immediately to their house located at Marche Plateau Ville in Brazzaville. The street leading to their house ran some metres adrift to the building housing the Economic and Social Council and it was also not very far from the Palais du Peuple or the People’s Palace, which is the official resident and office of the president of the Republic. I left my home which was located at 302 Case Batignolles, not far from the Maya-Maya international Airport and drove straight to the home of Maurice Nguesso in order to meet with his wife. Bridget Akoli Nguesso, the young wife of Maurice Nguesso is a beautiful girl whose only two qualities were that, she does not use bleaching cream to whiten her body as is the tradition in Congo and sadly, in most of black Africa, these days. The second is that, she was the winner of a local beauty pageant, held in Oyo, located some 318 km from Brazzaville, the capital. And it was after her victory in the village or should I say the town of Oyo that, Maurice Nguesso who is widower and who is at least twice divorce, fell in love with her. The person who carried out the negotiations was late Simon Zibe. But since she got married to the Nguessos, this undereducated woman, who was given an employment at the National Hydrocarbon Corporation of Congo known in French as Societe Nationale du Petrole du Congo abbreviated SNPC, is a changed person. She has become arrogant and doesn’t even want to meet or speak with Simon Zibe. Until, Simon Zibe, considered by Maurice Nguesso as his son died of typhoid fever in 2015; he was no longer in speaking terms with the “bush girl”, as he often described Bridget Nguesso. According to people close to them, the cause of their dispute is based on Bridget Nguesso suspecting Zibe of giving or serving as bridge between Maurice Nguesso and many girls. It is an accusation rejected by late Simon Zibe, who claims instead that, Bridget instead has the reaction of an insecure girl.    However, the truth is that, anyway, from my observations Mrs. Bridget Akoli Nguesso has the reaction of most people who came out of poverty and by default, became wealthy.

These types of people, especially those without any educational background are insecure and also have inferiority complex. Bridget Akoli Nguesso is also extremely jealous and doesn’t want to see any girl near her husband. Perhaps, she thinks that, the ease with which she got married to Maurice Nguesso might also be the same way he could drop her. The first thing that, I noticed when I arrived in their house  was that, Maurice Nguesso her husband was not aware that, I was coming and was therefore, he was surprised. Showing that, she had domination on Maurice Nguesso and also that, the old man was resisting in an apparent marital cold war, Bridget Nguesso defied him once again. She took me upstairs into their second dining room. And again, Maurice Nguesso was not happy. But what could the old man do when his wife was younger and from rumour had an affair with the younger brother of Maurice? In their dining room upstairs, she told me the following: “the president is not happy with you”. And she also added: the president has asked to inform you stop granting interviews to personalities of the opposition and the civil society, in particular, to all those who are opposed to the change of the constitution”. She went forward: “the president has also asked me to inform you that, you must stop authorizing your journalists of MNTV/MN Radio to cover activities of the opposition”.


This message smacked the same one that I had been delivered to me in January 31st 2014, by Lydie Hortense Kourissa. The president could no longer send me messages through Lydie Hortense Kourissa, because she had resigned her post as the head of the media group called MNCOM and was replaced by Mr René Michel Mboukou Etoney. He could not also send me any such messages through his elder brother, because Maurice Nguesso had already told him that, he should allow me to do my job freely. Maurice Nguesso also told the president of the Republic, Denis Sassou Nguesso, who is his younger brother that, he should stop listening blindly to all what Jean Dominique Okemba was telling him and he concluded: “Jean Dominique Okemba is our son and if you continue listening to him, he will be the architect of your fall”.  Hence the only person who was available to the president to play the errant between I and him was Bridget Nguesso. I suspect, Bridget Nguesso did love her new role, for it permitted her to meet with the present regularly on a pseudo professional reason or to plot. 

Friday, June 10, 2016

Congo-Brazzaville : Rich Press owners, poor reporters

Most Congolese journalists are the first to carry out self censorship and this not because of state brutality. It is done because; they are not financially free or independent. Even though we do accuse government’s brutality against journalists, as the main reason behind censorship, what we often ignored is that, poverty and financial uncertainties surrounding the profession is the greatest deterrent to the practice of good journalism in Congo and also within the sub region. However, the area where regional governments’ stands accuse is that, they have the capacity to compel all those who want to enter into the media sector to respect state labor laws as they do with other sectors, but they refrain from doing so. Furthermore, sub regional governments have the capacity to financially and professionally help local media industry to become independent. But sub regional governments deliberately refuses to support local press and instead prefers to invest in foreign media that will promote their interest as they have done in Congo with the financial support granted to Africanews, which is a subsidiary of Euronews or with Vision 4 TV.  Governments within the region especially those of Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon don’t see the necessity to have strong independent press. In their opinion, a strong professional and independent press will stand or constitute an adversary to them. Hence they want to see or they do encourage financially weak and unprofessional press.

The sub regional governments may be accused, for reasons aforementioned, but another unknown or the little heralded enemy of media freedom, independence and professionalism not only in Congo but within the central African sub region are proprietors of media houses. Most of them are not only greedy; they are most often corrupt and also lack management skills or experience. The last and perhaps also crucial impediment to media freedom and independence is the very small advertising market and also the absence of a strong service or industrial sector. Potential advertisers within the sub region are the few telephony companies and multinationals who dictate the rule within the advertising market. Most often, the advertising strategies of these companies are decided in the headquarters with little room for their subsidiaries to patronize local media houses. In such as condition, how does one expect the media industry in central Africa to be viable to a point of paying their staff regularly? How can a journalist who is not paid regularly resist corruption from politicians and businessmen or women? How does one expect an unpaid journalist to be independent?  Independent journalism has died in Congo because the press is not financially independent. The Congolese and central African journalists are caught up between the hammer of unscrupulous proprietors and the tong of a violent and repressive regime.

And as far as I was concern, I sustained  myself  and kept my independence  because I did  freelancing for media houses in France and in the United States. I also worked as a consultant for a business intelligence consultancy called Songhai Advisory. It is based in London, United Kingdom. To work as a journalist in Congo is not an easy task. It is in fact, very difficult, especially if you want to work as a professional independent journalist, respecting the basic tenets of the profession. Most professional journalists have either been forced to go into exile, intimidated through various means or bought over by the regime. And some have been killed. The best known Congolese journalists assassinated by the regime are Bruno Ossebi and Joseph Ngouala. And as such, only a group of journalists specialized in propaganda for the regime and the ruling Nguesso family are left in Congo to exercise their profession, which is in reality, to sing the praise of a system that is intolerant and worse, which has failed Congolese in all aspects.

Congo-Brazzaville:self censorship rampant among Journalists

What has always marveled me is how a family that is managing or controlling the wealth of an entire nation and that also spends massively in the creating and the financing of foreign media outlets such as Africanews, Jeune Afrique or Vision 4 TV, can be unable to pay people who are working within their media houses? The irony is that, these neglected national media houses: public and the pseudo private do spend their entire broadcasting hours, singing the praise of the president and the regime.  My conclusion on this manifest indifference of the ruling Nguesso family toward the Congolese media is that, they consider themselves to be very powerful and thus can do as they want with Congolese journalists and media.  As far as I am concern, the ruling Nguesso family, are simply inhumane, for they have little or no consideration for ordinary Congolese. In short, they are simply wicked. The ruling Nguessos don’t only fail to pay those who work for them within the media sector. They reserve the same inhumane treatment also to those working for them in different sectors. For example, those working for their bottling company, based in Edou and that produce a mineral water called Okiessi; they (workers) also go for months or even years without being paid. Hence, I wrote above that, nonpayment of workers was in the DNA of the Nguessos.

However, the irregular payment of journalists or workers in the media sector is a regional problem, affecting established media houses in both print and electronic media sectors.  In neighbouring Cameroon, Charles Nforgang, the spokesman of Cameroon Journalists Trade Union, says: media houses such as Aurore Plus, Le Messager, and Le Jour have not paid their workers for between two years and at least, six months. In such a situation, how do unpaid journalists or workers within the media sectors in Congo and Cameroon do sustain themselves? In the case of Congo and to be precise at MNCOM, that I know the condition because I have worked there, it depends on the department where the worker is attached or working in. Those who were worst off were the management staff and fixed or in house technicians. As far as journalists and cameramen/women were concern, they had monies or daily stipends because they went out to cover events and in the process, they were given brown envelopes or to put things clearly, they were paid by event organizers. It explains the reason why, most journalists do refuse or were not willing to carry out investigative journalism, when I was there. For how can you carryout investigative reporting on a politician or businessman/woman who is the sponsor of your newspaper or TV/Radio station?  That is where the dilemma lies. While some media and political analysts won’t agree.

But in my humble opinion, I do think that, the absence of independent minded journalists or truly independent media houses within the central African sub region is one of the reasons why prodemocracy movements and political change is slow to take roots. By contrast in the west and southern African sub regions, the same phenomenon of poor treatment of journalists and financially handicapped media organisations do exist. However, the difference with central Africa is that, there exist nonetheless some strong and well organized media houses coupled with well established civil society organisations and political parties. Furthermore, within the west and southern African sub regions, they also have a rising and politically conscious middle class who aspires and supports liberal democracy.  Whereas in central Africa, especially in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, DRC , Burundi and Chad, they is a rise of an  egocentric minuscule middle class that are inward looking or what I refer to as, crony middle class. The inability of most proprietors or owners of media houses in Congo and in most countries in the sub region to pay their workers regularly is also one of the reasons why journalism has its limitations or is one of the reasons why, self censorship is rampant. 

Sunday, June 5, 2016

I was at war ( part 4)

I was at war, but I think, they (the Nguessos and the government) never knew nor understood the level of my love and determination for what I was doing. I love my job and I think that, the only person in the ruling Nguesso family who knew that best, is/was Lydie Hortense Kourissa.  And in the ideological battle that was I wedging against the forces of evil that the Congolese government and a section of the ruling Nguesso family are, I am of the opinion that, even though I was expelled, we have won or should I say, I won. It was a collective battle fought by many but led by me. It was also invisible, hence, many could not fathom.  For my expulsion from Congo on the 26th day of September 2014, did expose to the world, the true face of one of the most brutal regimes on the continent. In the end, even though they gang raped my younger sister and opted to humiliate me, the way they did, the most important thing, in my opinion is that, my experimentation proved successful. I am now convinced that, a battle for a successful regime change or democratic improvement in countries such as Cameroon, Congo, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Rwanda, Equatorial Guinea, Uganda and Burundi, can be fought and won, only by people who are within the system.  

In order for change or democratic improvement to happen in central African states, it requires courage and the acceptance by those who have opted to champion such a path, to accept to pay the ultimate price.  However, I am equally aware that, it is easier said than done, for the challenges to prodemocracy activists and their families are enormous, because, governments of those aforementioned countries know no bounds, when it comes to human rights violations. And they do target all those who are against their strangled corrupt hold on power.  For a majority of central African regimes are not will willing to surrender power without a bloody fight.  I was aware of all those risk, but I was ready to pay that ultimate price. And as far as MNCOM is concern, the truth is that, not all was negative about the structure. Yes the management style were ambiguous, salaries were either paid at piecemeal or not paid at all.  However, one good thing and which also made MNCOM unique is that, it was a multinational place. If there was a bit of seriousness on the part of Maurice Nguesso and his children or his trusted advisers, MNCOM had what it needed to make her a national and even sub regional champion. And the multinational nature of MNCOM is not only a testimony to the original plan of  Maurice Nguesso, but also one more prove that, he had a vision. Maurice Nguesso might be labeled as poor manager, but one of the reasons behind his failures in management had already been explained. Nonetheless, he is creative, generous and above all, he is not tribal, regional or driven by any nationalistic spirit.


Maurice Nguesso is an internationalist who understands best the social engineering of Congo, perhaps better than his younger brother and his administration. Furthermore, most foreigners who opted to stay or work, at MNCOM, it was not because of money.  I think what made most of the foreigners to stay was because of two things: they had developed an attachment to the unique ambience within the media group and finally, they were attached to Maurice Nguesso. Yes, like his younger brother, Maurice Nguesso is attaching and charming. Jacques Roos was from France Florent Koumba from Gabon and Sam Nick Owosso from Ghana. These are examples of foreigners who opted to stay because they are loyal to Maurice Nguesso and not because of money. For as already stated above, the absence of regular payment was part of the DNA of MNCOM and also of the Nguessos.  At MNCOM, sometimes, workers stayed for between three and six months without being paid.  And how did they sustain themselves? It now depends of the department where you are attached. Those who were worst off were the management staff and fix or in house technicians. As far as journalists were concern, they got monies because they went out to cover events and they were given brown envelopes.

Saturday, June 4, 2016

Why I choose to stay and work in Congo ( part 3)



The security service hired people who opened different or several Facebook, blog, twitter and Whatsapp accounts, which are/were meant to insult or attack all those whose views are/were contrary to those of the government. These groups of people are known in French as les combatant du web or online warriors.  Then, I did not know that, social media were to play a major role in Congo’s presidential elections as it has done, by exposing the fantastic electoral fraud of President Denis Sassou Nguesso in March 20th 2016 presidential elections. Congo is a gigantic torture house. And at the head of this formidable machine of physical and psychological torture is General Jean Francois Ndenguet. Their plan is to force their victims to quit or commit suicide. It is another face of Africa. Africa is a strange place. It is a place where things that are not accepted elsewhere are either accepted or tolerated.  This is a continent where some or a majority of its leaders would want to hang on to power, even if it meant killing an entire region or even a country, as it is being observed in Burundi and currently  in  the Pool region of Congo. Africa is a continent where some women will support rape, simply because they want to defend and protect their own interest. Fortunately, once in a while, there are some linings of hope, like the elections that took place in Nigeria and Senegal, which saw the peaceful alternation of power from one civilian regime to another. Congo, represents that small but equally  enduring bad Africa, whose negative images and actions, erodes all the democratic advancements, however small, that is taking place on the continent. 

In term of the respect of human rights and democracy in general, the situation is deteriorating rapidly in Congo. People are being arrested in wanton manner, the press is not free, extrajudicial assassinations are rampant, democracy is destroyed and corruption and immorality has been elevated as a way of life by a government that wants to stay in power everlastingly. Hence, all means are used to perpetuate its plans. All those opposed to the government are arrested, killed or forced into exile.  As regards my job and stay at MNCOM, a media group owned by Maurice Nguesso, the elder brother of Denis Sassou Nguesso, I have read a lot things online, regarding the reasons why I stayed or worked in Congo. Most of it came up, when I took a public stand against the change of the constitution after I was expelled from the country. But some do not know that, it was because of my independent views that I was expelled and nothing else. I also want to make another point clear and it is not in any way aimed at absolving General Jean Francois Ndenguet. He is a criminal, but a disciplined one, who acts only when his masters instructs him to.  I want to make it abundantly clear that, what happened to me, won’t have happened, if Jean Francois Ndenguet did not have the support and backing of the President. Some of my online detractors, especially on Facebook, have even gone the extra mile in claiming that, I had a lump sum salary while working for Maurice Nguesso, hence I chose to stay and work in Congo. But, the truth is that, I didn’t stay or work at MNCOM because of money. May I put the fact straight here on. And throughout this book, I will explain why I stayed in Congo and also worked for the Nguessos. And more, I have no regrets and I do not consider them (the ruling Nguesso family) as my enemies. They are instead the ones who are considering me as an enemy, because they can’t stand anyone who is independent minded. They showed that, they considered me as an enemy when they decided to send thugs to attack me and also gang rape my younger sister.

They wanted to humiliate me and  force me into submission. But I bear no grudge. I do consider myself to be their true friend, especially a true friend of the President Sassou Nguesso. This is so because, I had told him the truth. And a true friend is the one who has the courage to tell the truth. I never wanted President Denis Sassou Nguesso that I held in great esteem to have the fate of Paul Biya, Robert Mugabe, Yoweri Kaguta Museveni or Pierre Nkurunziza. I never wanted him to be humiliated. Sadly, he did not listen and today, he is being ridiculed. He has been humiliated and called names. Had Denis Sassou Nguesso left power, he would have been respected at par with other African great statesmen such as Joaquin Chissano of Mozambique, Dr Goodluck E. Jonathan of Nigeria, Pedro Pires of Cape Verde or Abdou Diouf of Senegal.  As far as Maurice Nguesso is concern, he is not different with the majority of the ruling Nguesso family, that is term of the treatment that he/they gives to people working for them. These are two examples: management workers of the media group MNCOM have not been paid for 17 months while the rank and files have not been paid for 8 months. As concern TOP TV, a media house owned by Claudia Sassou Nguesso, the niece of Maurice Nguesso and daughter of President Sassou Nguesso, her workers   have not been paid for 14 months. Hence I can authoritatively write here on that, the ruling Nguessos, have one thing in common: they seldom pay those who are hired to work for them. At MNCOM, almost all managers who have worked for them have left either without being paid or with salary arrears.

The last two managers namely Laurent Delasus and Michel Rene Mboukou Etoney are two great examples. They have left because the terms of their contracts were not respected. Michel Mboukou is even owed the sum of FCFA 20 million, being his salary arrears or unpaid salaries. I was therefore not working because of any financial advantages because they also owe me a lot of unpaid salary arrears and also, they did not even bother to respect the terms of our contact. The last General Manager of an already death structure is called Florent Koumba, from Gabon. He is the one who gave a clear cut accounting procedure for the group and he also wanted it to operate like a real company. Currently he not paid and more, he is subject of regular humiliations. However, in spite the difficulties and the challenges, I did not bother myself because I knew I was in Congo for a mission and for that reason, I even had to sacrifice my own family. Congo for me was a kind of laboratory to learn how to topple or forced any entrenched dictatorial regime to leave or negotiate with prodemocracy activists and using the forceful combination of old and new media with the help of classic forces: opposition and civil society organisations. For  if  it were  for money, that I came to work for MNCOM, I would have left. This is so because, as already stated above, Maurice Nguesso doesn’t pay his workers and this not a fable or figment from my imagination. It is known by all those who have worked for him. Maurice Nguesso is no doubt very creative, imaginative for his age, but he is surrounded by a profiteering ring and worse, he has fathered children who are busy fighting among themselves to inherit his wealth while he is still alive. In other word, they want to fast lane him to the grave, but the strong, generous and cunning old man, is refusing and resisting death. He has survived several heart attacks. If his children had an ounce of positive and prospective brains, they would have focused their energy and intelligence not at fleecing their old father, but on how to grow and consolidate their fathers investments.  Besides MNTV/ MN Radio, both subsidiaries of MNCOM that, I can without any pretense crow here on that, it had succeeded under my management and this because of the help of people such as Alexander Pierre Bougha and Nick Owosso and certainly with others, all other investments of Maurice Nguesso are monumental failures.



But it is not the fault of Maurice Nguesso, he has tried his best but his children are incapable to recue any of his companies from collapse.  Sadly, poor management  seems to be in the family gene. The way his younger brother runs the industry called the Republic of Congo is also a flop. Furthermore, even if his many children wanted to improve things, they are mostly empty headed and because of pride, they don’t have the humility to surround themselves with professionals. In case they have professionals hired to work for them, they grow jealous whenever the hired professional becomes popular. I have worked for  Maurice Nguesso and as already mentioned, I sacrificed my family and was worst, I was even prepared physiologically to die, for I knew that, one day I will be killed. Hence, every Friday night, whenever I finished my live TV interviewing programme: La Grande Interview, I ended or signed off in French with this phrase: “A Vendredi prochaine,s’il plait a Dieu” or in English: until next Friday, God’s willing. It was my signature. Most viewers never understood the pressure that I was undergoing from a people who never wanted me to do my job as any other journalist would normally do. And I was also determine not to allow them to win in what I knew, was an ideological battle, for I knew that, Congolese deserve to be informed and this, objectively. I was personally tired of the propaganda within state media and also in pseudo privately owned media. I thought, I was on a mission, that must be fought and won, by all peaceful strategic means possible.